Links and Resources

Further Reading


  • Babcock, F Lawrence, Spanning the Atlantic (New York: Knopf, 1931).
  • Blackett, Richard J M, Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement, 1830-1860 (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1983).
  • Douglass, Frederick, My Bondage and My Freedom [1855] (New York: Dover, 1969).
  • McDaniel, W Caleb, ‘Saltwater anti-slavery: American abolitionists on the Atlantic Ocean in the Age of Steam’, Atlantic Studies, Vol 8 No 2 (June 2011), 141-63.
  • Pettinger, Alasdair, ‘”At Sea – Coloured Passenger”‘ in Bernhard Klein and Gesa Mackenthun (ed), Sea Changes: Historicizing the Ocean (New York: Routledge, 2004).
  • Pettinger, Alasdair, Frederick Douglass and Scotland, 1846: Living an Antislavery Life (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018).
  • Pryor, Elizabeth Stordeur, Colored Travelers: Mobility and the Fight for Citizenship before the Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016)
  • Smith, John David (ed), When Did Southern Segregation Begin?(Boston and New York: Bedford / St Martin’s, 2002).

World War II

  • Reynolds, David, Rich Relations: The American Occupation of Britain, 1942-1945 (London: Harper Collins, 1995).
  • Reynolds, David, ‘The Churchill Government and the Black American Troops in Britain during World War II’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 35 (1985), pp113-33.
  • Rice, Alan, ‘Black Troops Were Welcome in Britain, but Jim Crow Wasn’t: The Race Riot of One Night in June 1943’, The Conversation, 22 June 2018.
  • Smith, Graham, When Jim Crow Met John Bull (London: I B Tauris, 1987).
  • Thorne, Christopher, ‘Britain and the Black GI’s: Racial Issues and Anglo-American Relations in 1942’ in Border Crossings: Studies in International History (Oxford: 1988), pp259-74.

On the Web

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